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Surgical intervention should only be performed by healthcare professionals specialized in urology and pediatric surgery in an operating room

HYPOSPADIAS

Hypospadias is a birth defect (congenital disease) in which the penis does not develop in the usual way.

There are different anatomical variants but the most common is that the opening of the urethra (hole where urine comes out) does not reach the tip of the penis and is in its lower part.

It occurs due to an abnormality in the development of the foreskin, glans, urethra and anterior aspect of the penis.

Its identification is usually made from birth but in some cases the defect can go unnoticed and the diagnosis can be delayed until the age at which the foreskin is usually retracted (4-6 years).

The defect not only affects the aesthetics of the penis but also leads to alterations in function such as: difficulty in urinating «standing up», a fine or deviated urinary stream and a curved erection. This malformation can also affect the psychosexual development of the child and adolescent. Requires surgical treatment

Partes

INCIDENCE

The incidence of Hypospadias is variable in each geographic region. It affects between 2 and 8 of every 1,000 newborn males. An increase in the diagnosis of hypospadias has been reported, going from 20 per 10,000 born in 1970 to 40 per 10,000 born in 1993 in the USA.

More than 6,000 males are born annually with hypospadias in the United States. At the Germans Trias i Pujol hospital in Badalona (Spain) approximately 50-60 surgeries are performed per year for this malformation.

Most hypospadias present as isolated abnormalities of unknown cause. Different causes of the appearance of the malformation have been described:

  • Family cause. Between 5 and 25% of hypospadias have a familial incidence. When the first-born has Hypospadias, the risk of a second child is 10%, and if the father is also affected the risk increases to 25%. This leads to thinking about different genetic components.
  • Hormonal causes: Hypospadias has been linked to the production of fetal hormones.
  • Environmental and external causes: (pesticides, presence of hormones in food, administration of progestogens to the mother to facilitate pregnancy, maternal contraceptives, medications for paternal alopecia, etc.).

SURGICAL TREATMENT

The incidence of Hypospadias is variable in each geographic region. It affects between 2 and 8 of every 1,000 newborn males. An increase in the diagnosis of hypospadias has been reported, going from 20 per 10,000 born in 1970 to 40 per 10,000 born in 1993 in the USA.

More than 6,000 males are born annually with hypospadias in the United States. At the Germans Trias i Pujol hospital in Badalona (Spain) approximately 50-60 surgeries are performed per year for this malformation.

Most hypospadias present as isolated abnormalities of unknown cause. Different causes of the appearance of the malformation have been described:

  • Family cause. Between 5 and 25% of hypospadias have a familial incidence. When the first-born has Hypospadias, the risk of a second child is 10%, and if the father is also affected the risk increases to 25%. This leads to thinking about different genetic components.
  • Hormonal causes: Hypospadias has been linked to the production of fetal hormones.
  • Environmental and external causes: (pesticides, presence of hormones in food, administration of progestogens to the mother to facilitate pregnancy, maternal contraceptives, medications for paternal alopecia, etc.).

INCIDENCIA

The incidence of Hypospadies is variable in each geographic region. It affects between 2 and 8 of every 1,000 newborn males. An increase in the diagnosis of hypospadias has been reported, going from 20 per 10,000 born in 1970 to 40 per 10,000 born in 1993 in the USA.

More than 6,000 males are born annually with hypospadias in the United States. At the Germans Trias i Pujol hospital in Badalona (Spain) approximately 50-60 surgeries are performed per year for this malformation.

Most hypospadias present as isolated abnormalities of unknown cause. Different causes of the appearance of the malformation have been described:

  • Family cause. Between 5 and 25% of hypospadias have a familial incidence. When the first-born has Hypospadias, the risk of a second child is 10%, and if the father is also affected the risk increases to 25%. This leads to thinking about different genetic components.
  • Hormonal causes: Hypospadias has been linked to the production of fetal hormones.
  • Environmental and external causes: (pesticides, presence of hormones in food, administration of progestogens to the mother to facilitate pregnancy, maternal contraceptives, medications for paternal alopecia, etc.).

SURGICAL TREATMENT

The incidence of Hypospadies is variable in each geographic region. It affects between 2 and 8 of every 1,000 newborn males. An increase in the diagnosis of hypospadias has been reported, going from 20 per 10,000 born in 1970 to 40 per 10,000 born in 1993 in the USA.

More than 6,000 males are born annually with hypospadias in the United States. At the Germans Trias i Pujol hospital in Badalona (Spain) approximately 50-60 surgeries are performed per year for this malformation.

Most hypospadias present as isolated abnormalities of unknown cause. Different causes of the appearance of the malformation have been described:

  • Family cause. Between 5 and 25% of hypospadias have a familial incidence. When the first-born has Hypospadias, the risk of a second child is 10%, and if the father is also affected the risk increases to 25%. This leads to thinking about different genetic components.
  • Hormonal causes: Hypospadias has been linked to the production of fetal hormones.
  • Environmental and external causes: (pesticides, presence of hormones in food, administration of progestogens to the mother to facilitate pregnancy, maternal contraceptives, medications for paternal alopecia, etc.).
Pectus Up

PECTUS UP

Pectus Excavatum is a congenital deformity of the chest cavity, characterised by the concave or “funnel-like” shape of the chest.

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